Refocusing the Focus, Metafocus and Profocus: Mopping Urban Violence in Developing Cities

  • Opeyemi Idowu ALUKO Political Science Department University of Ilorin
Keywords: development, poverty, public policy, secondary, towns, urbanization, urban violence.


In most developing countries, urbanization is often relegated to the major population centres, leaving secondary cities and rural communities neglected. Such acts of neglect have caused occurrence of certain forms of violence in large cities. In order to reduce and mop up the resultant menace of urban violence, policy makers should initiate refocusing processes from larger cities to secondary cities. This will reveal an enormous potential growth and developments within the secondary cities and the country. This paper uses the principles of metafocus and profocus to proffer how the refocusing on secondary cities can be actualised and benefit the development of the state. The relative deprivation theory is utilized to analyse how the deprivation and neglect leads to urban violence. The adopted methodology analyses the economic conditions and the achieved satisfactory level of urban violence management that ensues from the demographic delimitations in the selected three African countries of Kenya, Nigeria and South Africa. Conclusions are based on the premise that the economic conditions will improve and become balanced if the Pleuri-Potent Mega-City Stem Cell (PPMC-SC) of the metafocus principles and the defensive internal curative packages (M-DICP) of the profocus principles are applied in the countries’ secondary and larger cities.

Author Biography

Opeyemi Idowu ALUKO, Political Science Department University of Ilorin
Ph.Dc. Political Science Department, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria.